Sunday, November 15, 2015

Linguistic tricks. Poetic function

In literature, it is not uncommon to use language to call attention towards itself (figures of speech), and to how things are being said. The writer has to catch the attention of the reader, and to use proper devices for this goal.
When language is being used to create beauty, to call attention towards itself, the poetic function is at work. The important thing is not so much what is being said but how it is being said. The writer intends to arouse certain sensations on the reader, of beauty, creativity, and originality, through the form of his or her message. Every expressive resource is valid. This function appears on colloquial language as well; everyone selects consciously or unconsciously the words, voice inflexions, and the types of sentences to use when building an efficient message for what one tries to communicate.

Saturday, November 7, 2015

Keywords for analyzing literary language and expression

1. Used to arouse emotions (sentimental) = hyperbole, prosopopeia (personification), apostrophe
2. Used to develop an idea (logical) = similes, antithesis, paradox, synthesis, gradation
3. Used to express an idea in an indirect manner (oblique, reformulated) = paraphrase, circumlocution
4. Used for emphatic purposes = epithete (usually an adjective)
5. Used to give greater dynamism = asyndeton (skipping conjunctions),
polysyndeton (using more conjunctions than necessary)
6. Used to avoid repetition = anaphora (the repetition of a concept without repeating the same word, generally by replacing a noun with a pronoun or with another noun with similar meaning)
7.Used to decrease the dynamic = polysyndeton (using more conjunctions than necessary)
8. alliteration = repetition of an initial sound in different words on the same line or on adjacent lines (e.g.: cooking cupcakes in the kitchen)
9. onomatopoeia  = immitating sounds instead of using words, especially when trying to render sounds made by animals, or sounds of the nature (blowing wind – swoosh!, pouring raindrops – tip! tip! etc.)
10. hyperbaton = reverse syntax (e.g.: saying “Reveal the truth I must”, instead of the normal syntax “I must reveal the truth”.)
11. metonymy = using a certain word as a substitute for another one with which it has a relation of causality
12.  synecdoque = using a word as a substitute for another, namingly using the whole to refer to a part
13. metaphore = identification of an object with another one that it is similar with, or with which it is compared indirectly
14. allegory = continuous metaphor
15. parable = educational narration
16. symbol = representation of an abstract concept by using a concrete one.

Monday, November 2, 2015

Literary text as an act of communication

Literary texts work as an act of communication that features the following characteristics:
It’s the result of the author’s creation, who wants it to last and preserve the exact same original form.
The communication that the literary work establishes with the reader is unilateral. The reader doesn’t establish a direct relation with the author, only with the message, with the author’s work (differed communication). At the same time, this happens only when the reader actively wants it to. The initiative to communicate corresponds to the reader.
The work is not aimed at a particular person, but at many or a few unknown people, contemporary or future readers (universal receiver).
Literary communication is uninterested; it doesn’t have an immediate practical objective. On the contrary, it has an aesthetic nature, it tries to produce reactions in one’s spirit caused by beauty. Regardless, it’s equally true that some authors sometimes write in favor of a specific cause, in order to promote changes in society or to condemn certain situations.