Saturday, November 7, 2015

Keywords for analyzing literary language and expression


1. Used to arouse emotions (sentimental) = hyperbole, prosopopeia (personification), apostrophe
2. Used to develop an idea (logical) = similes, antithesis, paradox, synthesis, gradation
3. Used to express an idea in an indirect manner (oblique, reformulated) = paraphrase, circumlocution
4. Used for emphatic purposes = epithete (usually an adjective)
5. Used to give greater dynamism = asyndeton (skipping conjunctions),
polysyndeton (using more conjunctions than necessary)
6. Used to avoid repetition = anaphora (the repetition of a concept without repeating the same word, generally by replacing a noun with a pronoun or with another noun with similar meaning)
7.Used to decrease the dynamic = polysyndeton (using more conjunctions than necessary)
8. alliteration = repetition of an initial sound in different words on the same line or on adjacent lines (e.g.: cooking cupcakes in the kitchen)
9. onomatopoeia  = immitating sounds instead of using words, especially when trying to render sounds made by animals, or sounds of the nature (blowing wind – swoosh!, pouring raindrops – tip! tip! etc.)
10. hyperbaton = reverse syntax (e.g.: saying “Reveal the truth I must”, instead of the normal syntax “I must reveal the truth”.)
11. metonymy = using a certain word as a substitute for another one with which it has a relation of causality
12.  synecdoque = using a word as a substitute for another, namingly using the whole to refer to a part
13. metaphore = identification of an object with another one that it is similar with, or with which it is compared indirectly
14. allegory = continuous metaphor
15. parable = educational narration
16. symbol = representation of an abstract concept by using a concrete one.

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