This is the part where we see how the text is made, what type of linguistic materials the author used to send us their message. Do not turn this part, the fundamental part of a literary commentary, into a list of resources but a reinforcement of the content. This stage is very variable since, logically, each text has its own structure. However, we offer the following strategies:
● The type of text can give you an idea of how to undertake the commentary. Evidently, it is not the same when about a narrative, descriptive, expository, argumentative, or dialogue text. The characteristics of each should be the object of the commentary.
● You can start by seeing if the text can be divided into significant parts and see what the relationship between those parts is: in that case, each part can be analyzed from every point of view but always highlighting the form-content. Never forget that a text is basically a unit or the fragment of one.
● The analysis of the relationship between form and content depends greatly on the genre of the text:
○ A narrative text will pay special attention to : a) the narrator’s figure; b) the structure of the narration and the narrative tense (ellipses, descriptions…); c) the characterization of the characters (by the narrator, the character himself, or other characters)
○ A dramatic text will pay special attention to the analysis of the characters through dialogue, linguistic records, and the events
○ A lyrical text will pay special attention to the expressionism of the subject, the relationship between the me, the you, and the referent
○ An essay text will pay special attention to the structure of the argumentation and the ideas presented
In any case, you will be able to use a detailed analysis of different structures:
● phonic: expressive resources related to sounds; in principle, this is where all metric and rhythmic analysis would be included, if in the analysis of each significant part there is an allusion made, when necessary, to the metric elements (enjambments, stanzas, types of verses…)
● morphosyntactic: Accumulation/absences of morphological categories (substantives, adjectives, verbs…), analysis of tenses and verbal modes (the use of the imperfect in descriptions, the value of the imperative…), expressive elements of language (diminutives, augmentatives, perspectives, comparatives, superlatives…), the modality of a phrase (impressive, declarative, expressive), and it's way of making itself present can help us realize how the author achieves their objective, strange elements in the draft, like vulgarities, sayings, etc., which give us information on the transmitter and the type of address they are creating, repetition or variation of syntactic structures, order of words or syntagmas…
● Semantic: using a lexicon, semantic camps, metonimias, synonymia, polysemia, and, in general, all the connotative values (comparisons, metaphors), semantically faced elements (paradox, oxymorons..)